KARABAGH: figures, facts, events and places.
KARABAGH: This is how the Turkish, Persian and other foreign conquerors called those provinces which they occupied since the 14th century. At the end of the 20th century (as of January 1, 1988) these territories constituted Nagorno Karabagh Autonomous Oblast and Lachin, Kelbajar, Dashkesan, Jebrail and Shahumian regions of Azerbaijani SSR.
KARS AGREEMENT (October 13, 1921), in conformity with the Moscow Agreement, confirmed that Nakhichevan Oblast should be assigned under the protection of Azerbaijani Soviet Socialist Republic (and not annexed to the AzSSR!).
KARVACHAR (KELBAJAR) REGION: Karvachar Region covers
an area of 1936 km2 of which around 140 km2 were connected to the region in
the 1920s' after their disunion from the Soviet Armenia. The region borders
on Martakert Region (NKR), Kashatagh, Vardenis, Vaik and Sisian regions (Republic
of Armenia), as well as Dashkesan and Khanlar regions (Republic of Azerbaijan).
Judging from the existing data, the political and cultural spheres of the Armenian people encompassed the territory of Karvachar region from the ancient ages. Since the times of Ararat Kingdom the history of the region was closely connected with the processes that took place in Armenia. In the 6th century BC the region was part of the Armenian State.
KARVACHAR AND ITS NEIGHBORING AREAS: Karvachar is one of the remarkable historical villages of Tsar Province. It is situated on the left bank plateau of the deep canyon through which the River Tertu runs. The village is located at an altitude of 180 meters from the level of the Tertu. In the Armenian historiography Karvachar is first mentioned in 1402. Tovma Siunetsi refers to Karvachar as "Karavachar" in his manuscript. In a document dated 1661 Karvachar is mentioned along with the villages of Kachav, Boru, Gomer and Zvar. Assumedly, Karvachar village was inhabited by Armenians until the 1730s' and gradually became deserted together with other settlements of the region. In 1850s' the region as settled by Kurds, and the initial pronunciation of the name underwent certain changes and was suited to the phonetics of the Kurdish language - "Kiarvajar" and later "Kialbajar".
In 1930 Karvachar - Kialbajar became the administrative center of the region. For political purposes of the Azeri authorities the small village of Kialbajar was issued a status of a settlement in 1960, and from 1980 it "became" a town.
Starting from the 1960s' a wide-range campaign on the artificial enlargement of the small village was launched and major resources were allocated for that project. In particular, the construction activities reached an unprecedented level in the course of 1980 - 1992. During the said period the government of Azerbaijan generously disbursed funds for the strengthening and expansion of the administrative center of the Turkish-assimilated Karvachar Region which separated Armenia from MKAO. As the result, for the last 20-25 years the administrative center "grew" 6-7 times both in terms of its area and population. The Karvachar church and the Armenian cemetery were fanatically destroyed by the local Turks and Turkish-assimilated merely for the sake of destroying everything that was of Armenian origin. Nevertheless, a khachkar (stone cross), a unique monument of the ancient ages, was preserved in the local Museum of History and Ethnography until April of 1993. In addition, there are several natural caves in the rocks nearby the eastern suburbs of Karvachar of which was obviously used as a dwelling place in the ancient times.
KASHATAKH ( LACHIN ) REGION: In the Armenian historiography Aghachek Province is referred to as one of the 12 provinces of Siunik region of Great Armenia. The place is first mentioned in "Ashkharatsuits" which was created in the 7th century.
Kashatakh borders on Sisian and Goris regions of the Republic of Armenia, Karvachar and Kubatli regions of the Republic of Azerbaijan, as well as Shushi and Hadrut regions of NKR.
Historically Aghachek Province occupied the territory of the present Kashatakh (Lachin) Region of NKR. Its territory covers an area of 1835 km2.
KASHUNIK ( KUBATLI ) REGION: According to "Ashkharatsuits" (7th century), Bakhk was one of the 12 provinces of the historical Suinik Region of Great Armenia. In the Middle Ages the province was divided into western and eastern sections which were assigned individual names.
The territorial-administrative position of the province did nor undergo any major changes until the province was passed under the domination of Russia when it was included in Zangezur District of Yelizavetpol Province. After the establishment of the Soviet power the volosts (small rural districts) created in the territory of historical Kashunik were shared between the republics of Soviet Armenia and Soviet Azerbaijan. As the result, the western mountainous areas were given to Armenia while Azerbaijan received the eastern fertile lowlands. In 1923 the areas passed to Azerbaijan were included in the newly established Red Kurdistan Autonomous Oblast. However, in 1930, after the dissolution of the said autonomous unit, they were connected to Zangelan region.
KOVSAKAN ( ZANGELAN) REGION: Zangelan region which covers a territory of 707 km2 was established in 1930. It corresponds to Kovsakan, one of the 12 historical Armenian provinces. The borders of Kovsakan have not been precisely defined. However, today Zangelan occupies the central sector of the former province.
In the Middle Ages Kovsakan Province was commonly known by the name of Gerkhamu fortress situated there.
During the determination of the borders of the Soviet republics just Achanan Volost was included in Kapan Region of ArmSSR. Only the western sector was annexed to Armenia while the more fertile eastern lands were connected to the newly established state, i.e., the Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan. Here administrative region of Zangelan was formed in 1930, and in the course of the following decades the authentic inhabitants, i.e., the Armenians, were forced out from this area.
The western sector of Kovsakan adjoining the Republic of Armenia, as well as the mountainous areas covered with forests are notably rich in historical monuments.
KOTOR ( KODUR ) VILLAGE AND FORTRESS: Kodur Village which still bears its historical name is situated in a deep canyon of one of the main right-side tributaries of the River Dutkhu, at an altitude of 1780 meters. Kodur Fortress is erected on the 0,7 km northeastwards the village, on top of the distant mountain (altitude is 2149 m). The flat top has a sloping northern edge, acicular eastern and southern sides, and there are grottos underneath the western edge of the top. The masonry of the defense walls is typical of the 12th-13th centuries.
KHACHEN Principality was part of Artsakh. Khachen is often mentioned in the historical sources dating back to the 10th century. Khachen encompassed the areas of the modern MKAO and Lachin and Kelbajar regions of AzSSR (as of January 1, 1988). The administrative center of the Principality was based in Khachen Castle (the domain bears the name of the latter). The Principality was administered by Prince Sagel Smbatian Aranshakhik and his descendants.
KAZARYAN ANDRANIK ABRAM (1904 - 1992) Born in 1904 in Shushi. A Major General, Hero of the Soviet Union. During the Great Patriotic War Kazaryan was the commander of a regiment, brigade, division. He participated in the liberation of Konigsberg. In addition, Kazaryan was the representative of the Soviet headquarters in Manchjuria. Kazaryan was awarded with two Lenin Orders, a medal of the Hero of the Soviet Union, three Suvorov Orders of the 2nd degree, five Red Banner Orders, etc.
KAZARYAN EDWARD YERVAND (1938) A composer. Born in 1938
in Baku to a family from Artsakh. A graduate of the Conservatoire, participated
in several World Youth and Students Festivals. A professional musician, he
is also the author of dozens works. Kazaryan is member of the Composers' Union.
He headed the Composers' Union of Nagorno Karabagh.
KAMALYAN GURGEN VOSKAN (1909 ) - A doctor of biology, professor. Born in 1909 in Shushi. A graduate of Yerevan Zoological and Veterinarian Institute. During the period from 1955 till 1972 he was the president of the same institute. Kamalyan was the pioneer in the area of biochemistry in Armenia. He is the author of over 150 scientific articles. Kamalyan participated in the 5th, 6th and 7th World Congresses on Biochemistry. He also delivered lectures in the German Democratic Republic. Kamalyan was awarded with the Orders of Red Banner and October Revolution.
╩└NAYAN DRASTAMAT - DRO IN KARABAGH: Dro led the minor armed forces of the Republic of Armenia to Karabagh on April 14, 1920. The troops were stationed in Karabulagh village. Firstly, Dro turned to the Armenian populace of Karabagh with the appeal to unite and defend the motherland. Shortly thereafter Dro organized and united the scattered units of self-defense of the region, recruited over 3000 young men, prepared the master plan of the military actions. The organs of national governance of Karabagh, i.e., the Council of Governors, was re-established with the direct involvement of Dro. He left the region in late May of 1920, passing the power to Sako Hambartsumyan, the chairman of the Revolutionary Committee of Karabagh.
╩└SPAROV ASHOT JUMSHUD (1909-) Born in Dudukchi village of Hadrut
region (Nagorno Karabagh). A Hero of the Soviet Union. A commander of an air-squadron,
major. From the very first days of the Great Patriotic War Kasparov fought
in Kalinin, Stalingrad, Leningrad, 1st, 2nd and 3rd West-Belorussian Fronts.
Kasparov was awarded the title of a Hero of the Soviet Union as recognition
of his outstanding military service, as well as the Orders of Lenin and Red
Star, two Red Banner Orders, etc.
╩└SPAROV (GASPARYAN) SOUREN HAKOP (1924 - ): Born in 1924 in Kilijbakh village (Askeran region of Nagorno Karabagh). A Hero of the Soviet Union. Participated in the Great Patriotic War from January of 1943.
KHOSROV BEK SOULTANOV: A Kurd by nationality with a background of a physician, Khosrov Bek was known in the region for his anti-Armenian actions. On January 16, 1919 upon the consent of the English occupants, the Mousafat government of Azerbaijan designated him as the interim governor general of Karabagh and Zangezur. He held this position until May of 1920. Upon the establishment of the Soviet power in Baku he immediately appointed himself as "the chair of the revolutionary committee of Karabagh". He was put to prison, but was set free with the help of Narimanov. Later he moved to Persia. Khosrov Bek was the initiator and leader of all anti-Armenian actions, repression and massacres in Karabagh during 1919-1920 for which he was called "Butcher of Karabagh".
KHUDYAKOV SERGEI ALEXANDER (KHAMFERTSYAN ARMENAK ARTEM) (1902 - 1950) Born in 1902 in Mets Takhlar village of Hadrut Region (Nagorno Karabagh). In the years of the Baku Commune Khudyakov fought against the enemies of the Commune. He was commander of the company of the 1st Cavalry Corps (1922), sotnik (lieutenant of Cossacks), principal of the school and head of the headquarters of the regiment. Khudyakov was awarded with a Lenin Order, two Red Banner Orders, and foreign medals.
KHUBLARYAN MARTIN HAIK (1935 ) - A Doctor of Technical Sciences. Born in 1935 Bolnic Khachen to a family from Artsakh. A graduate of Yerevan Institute of Agriculture. In 1964 he concluded the postgraduate course of the Institute of Mechanics of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union. In 1979 Khublaryan was offered the position of the deputy director of the Institute of Water Problems of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Meantime, he received the degree of a doctor of technical sciences. In 1988 Khublaryan was appointed a director of the Institute of Water Problems of the Academy of Sciences of Armenia.