KARABAGH: figures, facts, events and places.
ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION OF TRANSCAUCASUS: The problem arose concurrently with the establishment of Zemstvos, the institution of self-governance, in the region and was the topic of discussion for more than twenty years. It was proposed to create the Zemstvos, based on the geographic, climatic, historical-political and ethnic features. One of the versions assumed division of Yelizavetpol
Province into two sections with the Armenian section of Gandzak where the
Armenians constituted the majority of the populace, including Karabagh (Artsakh),
Zangezur, Gardman with the administrative center of the Armenian part of Yelizavetpol,
right bank of the River Gandzak and the Moslem part of the Province which
basically included the lowland districts with the left bank section of Yelizavetpol
as its center. This version was approved by the Interim Government but its
implementation was disrupted as the result of the October Revolution in 1917.
ARMENIAN MASSACRE IN SHUSHI (1905): The massacre was perpetrated in August of 1905. Despite the self-defense of the Armenians led by Sargis Meghrabian, major harm was done to the Armenian part of the town. Numerous buildings were burnt and the rich houses and stores were robbed. According to rough estimations, around 130 Armenians were killed. Suffice to the advantage in number, the Turkish Tatars were also supported by the local and province authorities. Nevertheless, as the result of the resolute and well-organized resistance of the Armenians they were the first to propose cease-fire.
ARMENIANS OF AZERBAIJAN, together with the Moslem population, represented one of the state nations of the Azerbaijani Soviet Socialist Republic, "the indivisible union of the Moslems and Armenians" (cf.: Decree of the Central Executive Committee of Azerbaijan "On Establishment of Nagorno-Karabagh Autonomous Oblast" of July 7, 1923). During the Soviet period the policy run by the Bolsheviks in the East served as a sanction for the Azeri Turks to force the Armenians out from Azerbaijan. Over 1,5 million Armenians now live outside Azerbaijan who consider Azerbaijan as their homeland.
ARMENIAN CULTURAL UNION OF BAKU was established in 1906 in Baku upon the initiative and with the financial assistance of Constantine Khatisian, an engineer and manufacturer (1864-1913) who chaired the Union till his death. The Union had literature, drama, education and publishing departments, but its performance encompassed a wide rage of activities. The Union ceased its performance in 1918, after the occupation of Baku by the Turkish troops and Turkish Tatars when the property of the Union was robbed and given to fire.
ARMENIAN EPARCHIC SEMINARY OF KARABAGH: The Seminary was founded in
1838 in Shushi thanks to the efforts of the spiritual leader of Karabagh Metropolitan
Baghdasar Hasan-Jalalian. The Seminary was maintained basically thanks to
donations. In the curriculum a significant role was given to natural sciences.
The classrooms were refurbished with modern technical equipment. It also had
a rich library. Students belonging to various social groups were enrolled
in the Seminary. In 1892 the number of the students was about 500. In conformity
with its statutes, the Seminary trained both future clergymen and teachers.
At different times various famous pedagogues, philologists, writers taught
there, including P. Shanshian, S. Mandinian, P. Proshian, Gh.Aghayan, L. Abeghian,
etc. Many of its graduates had their contribution to various spheres of life:
historian Leo, writer Mouratsan, public figure K. Melik-Shahnazarian, pedagogue
A. Bagatrian, prominent figures of the liberation movement A. Manukian, M.
Ter-Danielian, Gr. Mirzabekian, etc. The Seminary was closed and reopened
for several times by the authorities of the Tsarist Russia. It existed until
1920 when the Soviet power was established in Karabagh.
ARMENIAN NATIONAL COUNCIL OF KARABAGH: The Council was established in September, 1918 at the 2nd Congress of the Armenians of Karabagh when the People's Government of Karabagh was renamed into the Armenian National Council of Karabagh. In essence, its structure remained the same:
1. Justice Department - Commissar Arso Hovhannisian, Levon Vardapetian
2. Military Department - Harutiun Tumian (Tumanian)
3. Department of Education - Rouben Shahnazarian
4. Refugees Department - Moushegh Zakharian
5. Control Department - Anoush Ter-Mikaelian
6. Department of Foreign Affairs - Ashot Melik-Hovsepian.
The Council was chaired by Yeghishe Ishkhanian, and Melikset Yesayan was elected its secretary. The Armenian National Council of Karabagh was an independent national government which exercised its powers during the periods following the congresses. It was authorized to act both as a legislative and executive body. The decisions on major political and economic issues of the region were taken by the Congress of the Armenians of Karabagh. Geographically, the scope of the powers of the Council covered the mountainous regions of Karabagh, including the Armenian villages of Gandzak District. The activities of the Council were ceased in late May of 1920 after the establishment of the Soviet regime.
ARMED CONFLICTS IN BAKU (MARCH, 1918): On March 12, 1918 the body of Mamed Tagiyev, young officer of the Turkish-Tatar regiment based in Lenkoran was brought to Baku. Mamed Tagiyev was the son of G.Z. Tagiyev, a famous and wealthy Tatar manufacturer. After the funeral of M.Tagiyev the Bolshevik authorities of Baku demanded that the detachment which escorted the corpse should be disarmed. The detachment initially agreed to do so. However, it joined the armed groups of the Mousavatists of Baku and opened fire on the soldiers of the Bolshevik Army. The shooting grew into armed confrontation which lasted three days (from March 18 till 21). The Turkish-Tatar nationalists took advantage of the fact that the head of the Bolshevik power in Baku was an Armenian (Stepan Shahumian) and attempted to give an ethnic coloring to the confrontation. The attempts of the Armenian national organizations of Baku to appease the conflicting sides ended in failure. Therefore, the Armenians were obliged to resist and, at the same time, defend and give shelter to 14,000 Moslems.
APPEAL OF A. TAGIEYEV, WELL-KNOWN MILLIONAIRE FROM BAKU, TO GOVERNEMNT OF TRANSCAUCASUS IN RESPECT OF ARMED CONFLICTS IN BAKU IN MARCH: The wire, dated March 27, read: "The confrontation is over in Baku. For the sake of the welfare of the region, I consider I ought to publicly announce that the events in Baku were not ethnic nature. In the course of the armed confrontation the Tatars did not offend the Armenians living in the Tatar quarters of the town. On the other hand, the people living in the Armenian parts saved and sheltered over 14000 Moslems who were returned owing to the interference of the Persian consul. I call for ceasing immediately any hostile actions and vengeance. I consider that it is in accord with common interests, and request you to contribute to the maintenance of peace and order among the population. Let everyone return to his everyday peaceful life".
APPEAL OF NARIMANOV, CHAIRMAN OF REVOLUTIONARY COMMITTEE OF AZERBAIJAN
AND HUSEINOV, COMMISSAR OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS (NOVEMBER 30, 1920): "…Resolution
of the Revolutionary Committee of Azerbaijan of November 30 shall be announced
to the Armenians on behalf of the Azerbaijani Soviet Socialist Republic: "The
government of workers and peasants of Azerbaijan welcomes the victory of the
fraternal nation and the establishment of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic.
From now on all disputes between Armenia and Azerbaijan about the borders
of these two states are annulled. Nagorno Karabagh, Zangezur and Nakhichevan
are part of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic…".
ADMINISTRATIVE BODY OF NAGORNO KARABAGH: Established in April of 1920
in Karabagh upon the initiative and with the participation of Dro. The body
represented the autonomous and independent national power of Nagorno Karabagh.
It had the following structure:
- Administrator/Chairman - Arsen Hovhannisian
- Department of the Interior (Astvatsatur Avetisian - Head)
- Military Department (Dro - Head)
- Procurement Department (Khachik Melkonian - Head)
- Refugees Department (Harutiun Toumanian - Head)
- Labor Department - (Arshavir Kamalian - Head)
- Health Department (Liudvig Ter-Grigorian - Head)
- Justice Department - (Hamzayan - Head)
The government was based in Avetaranots village (Chanakhchi), and the departments was located in the villages of Karabulagh, Khachmaz, Skhtorashen, Nerkin Taghavard. The headquarters of the army were based in the village of Sarashen.
ARMENIAN GENOCIDE OF SOUMGAYIT, às well as the massacres followed after the Soumgayit events throughout the republic became the reasons why the disagreement between the republic and MKAO about the state-legal status of Karabagh grew into the ethnic-political conflict between the Armenian and Azerbaijani people of AzSSR. Around 13,500 Armenians lived in Soumgayit. From February 26 through 28, 1988 over 100 Armenians were assassinated burnt alive and raped by the mob which acted according to a thoroughly elaborated plan. Those who survived were obliged to flee from the town leaving behind all their property.
ARMENIAN NATIONAL COUNCIL OF TIFLIS was established in October, 1917 at the All-Armenian Congress of eastern Armenians. The Council coordinated the activities of national councils at that time based in various towns of Transcaucasus. The Council had departments for military affairs, health, refugees' affairs and education. It acted as plenipotentiary representative of eastern Armenians. As a member of United Transcaucasus Committee, it participated in the talks with Turkey, Germany. During the period from May 28, 1918 (the proclamation of independence of Armenia) through July, 1919 (the parliamentary elections) it participated in the work of the Council (National Assembly) of the republic. In July, 1918 it based in Yerevan and performed legislative functions.
AGHVANK was the western territory of Great Haik. Persia which instituted its supremacy in East Armenia in 428 BC established the administrative unit, i.e., the Province of Aghvank which included Aghvank Proper, as well as Artsakh and Utik Provinces of Great Haik. After the downfall of the Persian domination in the 8th century the territory was passed under the supremacy of the Arabic Khalifate as Arminia Province. The geographical name Aghvank was applied to the territory of the Armenian regions (provinces) of Artsakh and Utik
AGHVANK (PROPER): Aghvank Proper, Country of Aghvank, Country of Albania
covered the territory between the River Kura and Major Caucasus Range. In
the east it reached the Caspian Sea and bordered on Georgia in the west. According
to the medieval Armenian sources, Aghvank Proper incorporated 11 districts
(regions). In the 1st century BC 26 tribes lived in the Country of Aghvank
which were merged into a single kingdom ruled by one of the branches of the
Partev Arshakuni Dynasty. Close relations were maintained with Armenia. At
the end of the 4th century Christianity was adopted in Aghvank Proper. After
the division of Armenia and the institution of the supremacy of Persia in
East Armenia Aghvank Proper was included in Aghvank Province. During the period
of the Arabic domination (7th century) it was merged into Arminia Province.
As a result of the regular invasions of the foreign aggressors (Persians,
Kurds, Arabs, Turkish Seljuks, Ogus-Turkmens, etc.) the ethnic composition
of Aghvank radically changed. Armenians lived in Aghvank Proper since the
ancient ages. In particular, Kambenjan-Shaki District was exclusively inhabited
by authentic Armenians.
AGHDAM is situated near the Yevlakh-Shushi highway. It is inhabited
with Turkish-Tatars. Before 1920 government agencies, such as the police station,
post-office, operated in Aghdam. The police was responsible for the control
over the main roads leading to Nagorno Karabagh. In 1918-20 the population
of Aghdam, including Mourad-Beghlu, Ali Mardanili, Marijalu, Sharaflu, was
2100. According to the census of 1970, the number of the residents was 21,300.
AGHJABEDI REGION: The administrative region of Aghjabedi was established
in 1930. As of 1976 the region constituted one town and 44 villages.
The territory of today's Aghjabedi region corresponds to Uti-Arandzak Province and the northwest sector of Paitakaran of the historical Great Armenia. In the Middle Ages the region was known by the name of Bekhamej.
Today the area of Aghjabedi region covers the major part of the extensive Aran plateau, including the entire area between the rivers Kura and Arax. It is known that because of the extremely unfavorable conditions for the organization of the defense the aborigines abandoned the region before the late medieval ages. The authentic inhabitants fled away and settled in the highlands of Artsakh. Later the wide valley was inhabited by nomadic tribes. This is why most of the Armenian cultural monuments preserved in the territory of today's Aghjabedi region belong to the pre-Christian and early Christian periods.
ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION OF TRANSCAUCASUS: The problem arose concurrently with the establishment of Zemstvos, the institution of self-governance, in the region and was the topic of discussion for more than twenty years. It was proposed to create the Zemstvos, based on the geographic, climatic, historical-political and ethnic features. One of the versions assumed division of Yelizavetpol Province into two sections with the Armenian section of Gandzak where the Armenians constituted the majority of the populace, including Karabagh (Artsakh), Zangezur, Gardman with the administrative center of the Armenian part of Yelizavetpol, right bank of the River Gandzak and the Moslem part of the Province which basically included the lowland districts with the left bank section of Yelizavetpol as its center. This version was approved by the Interim Government but its implementation was disrupted as the result of the October Revolution in 1917.
ARTSAKH was the tenth province of Great Haik (Armenia). In the inscriptions of Urartu (IX-VI centuries BC) Artsakh is referred to as "Urtekhe", "Urtekhine". In the Hellenic-Roman Sources Artsakh is noted as "Orkhistene". In the north its borders stretch along the River Kura southwards through the River Yeraskh (Arax). The territory of Artsakh include part of Moukhank (Moughan) Valley in the east and the eastern shore of the Lake Sevan in the west. In the early medieval sources Artsakh was called Eastern Armenian side because it entirely encompassed the area adjoining the eastern borders of Great Haik. Artsakh was also known by the name of Siunik Minor. The borders with Siunik Major were not precisely defined. Artsakh comprised 12 districts: Second Aband (as opposed to Aband of Siunik Major), Vaikunik, Berdadzor, Mets Arank, Mets Kokhmank (Mets Kvenk), Parisos (Parnes), Moukhank, Mokhek, Piank, Parskank, Argkhank, Kokht. According to the Royal Military Registry, 1000 soldiers from Artsakh were regularly recruited to the Army.
ATERPATAKAN - AZERBAIJAN: The geographical name of the territory of
Persia which borders on the River Arax (Yeraskh) in the northeast. The name
was pronounced by the Arabic and Tatar conquerors according to their linguistic
standards: the Arabs called it "Aderbaijan", "Azerbaijan",
and the Turks called it "Azrbaijan". At present two provinces of
the Islamic Republic of Iran, i.e., Western and Eastern with the administrative
centers of Tebriz and Zenjan respectively, bear the name "Azerbaijan".
The name does not have anything in common with name of the Republic of Azerbaijan
which is situated northwards the River Arax. The name was assigned to the
republic in mid-1918.
ANDABERD FORTRESS: Andaberd is of special notice among the fortresses with powerful fortification system not only of Tsar Province but the whole Artsakh and the "Eastern Lands" of Armenia. The Fortress is situated between the present villages of Chapni and Ganlikend, 600 meters southwards the left bank of the River Lev, on top of a steep woody mountain.
Andaberd Fortress crowned with a remarkable history is often mentioned in the Armenian historiography.
In 1312 Andaberd was mentioned in one of the notes of the Holy Bible of Targmanchats Monastery (Khachakap) as one of the fortification structures of Dopian Principality.
The inside area of the fortress which is surrounded with a rectangular wall was 92 õ 60 meters. The average thickness of the defense wall is 1,3 meters. The maximal height of the preserved walls is 8 meters.
AMARAS TEMPLE was the spiritual and cultural center of Artsakh. It was erected in a settlement which was situated in the area of Other Aband of Artsakh (Martuni Region of MKAO as of January 1, 1988). The temple was constructed in the 4th century by Grigor the Enlightener. Until the 6th century Amaras was the residence of the head of Aghvan Eparchy. The tomb of Grigor with a well-preserved inscription (489) on it is beneath the altar. Since the early times schools functioned in the temple. The temple is surrounded with defense towers where the people were sheltered during the times of danger. The temple seriously suffered from the invasions and offenses of the foreigners, but was restored more than once. Today it is in a satisfactory state.
AVAKYAN HRANT ARSEN (1924 - ): Born in 1924 to a family from Shushi. A Hero of the Soviet Union. Began his military career as early as in 1942. Participated in the defense of Caucasus and ended the war in Germany. Avakyan was awarded the title of the Hero of the Soviet Union for the courageous behavior in the battle for Berlin. Awarded with the Gold Star of Hero, three Lenin Orders and various medals.
AVAN YUZBASHI (1670-1735): Born in 1670 in Shosh village (Askeran region, Nagorno Karabagh). Yuzbashi was the commander of the armed forces of the five melikdoms of Artsakh in 1724-1728. In assistance with Russia, fought for the liberation of Armenia. Participated in the Caspian military campaign, and as recognition of his outstanding service he received the title of Major General and the ownership title of Kizral (North Caucasus) together with the nine neighboring villages from Empress Anna. The Smbatyan and Melikyan dynasties originate from the family of Yuzbashi.
AVANESOV RUBEN IVAN (1902-1982)- a Doctor of Philology, Professor, Associate Member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, a State Prize laureate, Vice-President of the International Institute of Phonetics. Avanesov was born in 1902 in Shushi town. In 1925 he graduated from Moscow State University and was recruited to work in the Department of the Russian Language of the same university. In 1944 he headed one of the departments of the Institute of the Russian Language of the USSR Academy of Science. The research work of Avanesov relate to Russian lexicology, phonetics, historical grammar, orthography.
AVETIKYAN HAMIK GRIGOR (1915 - 1988): Born in 1915 in Shushi. Participated in the Great Patriotic War, and continued his service in the army till 1951. Avetikyan held a number of lead positions in Taman Division. In 1954 was appointed deputy minister of the interior of Armenian SSR. Avetikyan was elected member of the Supreme Council of the Armenian SSR. For outstanding service Avetikyan was awarded with Red Star Order, Order of the Great Patriotic War of the 1st and 2 degrees, various medals.
AVTANDILYAN ARSEN MARKOS (1910- ): Born in 1910 in Baku, to a family
from Artsakh. Finished the Tashkent Military School of Middle Asian District.
Avtandilyan was appointed commander of the section of the 19th Cavalry Regiment
School, and later director of the same school. Participated in the Great Patriotic
War, in particular, the defense of Moscow, in North Caucasus. As a guards
colonel, Avtandilyan was awarded with Lenin Order, three Red Banner Orders,
Red Star Order, the Order of the Great Patriotic War of the 1st degree and
other medals. After the war Avtandilyan held several lead positions in the
army and headed major military units.
AVTANDILYAN TEMIK HOVHANNES (1923 - 1945): Born in 1923 in Martakert village (Martakert region, Nagorno Karabagh). A Hero of the Soviet Union. Started his military career in 1942 when he volunteered to the army to defend his homeland. Died during the conquest of Klein town. Lieutenant Avtandilyan was awarded with the title of a Hero of the Soviet Union.
AGHAJANYAN STEPAN MELIKSET (1863-1940)- Born in 1863 in Shushi. In 1886-1890 studied in an art studio in Marseille and later in the Julian Academy in Paris. In 1904-1921 worked in Rostov-on-Don, and during 1922-1929 he worked in Yerevan. In 1938 Aghajanyan was awarded with the title of the People's Artist of Armenia, and in 1939 he received a Red Banner Order.
AGHAJANYAN SOUREN IVAN (1905 - 1952): Born in Azokh village (Hadrut region, Nagorno Karabagh). Started his military career in 1939 as a commander of a special engineering brigade. During the Great Patriotic War he fought in the frontier zone of Belorussia. Aghajanyan participated in the defense of Kiev and reached Berlin. Aghajanyan was awarded with Orders of Lenin, Kutuzov and Red Star.
AGHALOVYAN LENSER ABGAR (1940 -)- An academician and Doctor of Physics
and Mathematics. Born in 1940 in Kotalak village (Martakert region, Nagorno
Karabagh). Graduated from the Department of Physics and Mathematics of Yerevan
State University. In 1966 received a Ph.D., worked at the same university
and later joined the institute of Mathematics and mechanics of the Academy
of Sciences of Armenia. In 1980 received the degree of a doctor of physics
and mathematics, and in 1987 became the elected director of the Institute
of Mechanics. Aghalovyan, an academician of the Academy of Sciences of Armenia,
is the author of 55 scientific articles.
AGHAYAN TSATUR PAVEL (1911-1982) - An academician of the Academy of Science of Armenia, Professor, doctor of History. Born in 1911 in Zaglik village of Yelizavetpol District. In 1937 graduated from the Department of History and Philosophy, later he concluded successfully the Yerevan Open Institute of Pedagogy. In 1941 Aghayan received his Ph.D. and worked in the Baku branch of the Institute of History of the Academy of Science of the USSR. From 1948 Aghayan worked at the Institute of History of the Academy of Science of Armenia. During 1961-1968 Aghayan headed the Armenian branch of the Institute of Marxism-Leninism at the CPSU. During 1963-1971 Aghayan was member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Armenia, and from 1971 through 1980 he was member of the Control committee of the CP of Armenia. Aghayan was awarded with a Red Banner Order, a Badge of Honor and various medals.
ADAMOV ARTUR (ADAMYAN HARUTYUN SOUREN) (1908-1970) - A French playwright. Adamov was born in 1908 to a family of oil producer from Shushi. Moved to Europe in 1914, and settled in France in 1924. Was trained in Switzerland, Germany, and France. Adamov was member of the Writers' Committee of France.
ALIKHANOV ABRAHAM ISAAK (1904-1970) - A physicist, academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and Armenia, a Hero of the Socialist Labor. Graduated from the Leningrad Polytechnical Institute in 1929. During 1927-1941 worked in the Institute of Physics and Techniques at the Academy of Science of the USSR, and during 1945- 1968 was the director of the thermal-technical laboratory of the Institute of Theory and Research of the Academy of Science of the USSR. Together with his team, in 1949 Alikhanov created the first nuclear sector with heavy water retarder in the Soviet Union. He became the founder of the school of nuclear physics in the USSR. Alikhanov was a laureate of the State Prizes of the USSR for 1941, 1948, and 1963. Awarded with three Lenin Orders and three Red Banner Orders.
ALIKHANYAN ARTEM ISAAK (1908-1991)- Born in 1908 in Tbilisi to a family from Gandzak. In 1931 Alikhanyan graduated from the Leningrad University. During 1943-1973 he worked as director of Yerevan Institute of Physics. His investigations were in the area of radioactivity and atom nucleus. He discovered the first artificial radioactive element which ejects electrons. Together with Alikhanov, Alikhanyan was the first to mark the existence of new elementary particles in the cosmic rays (1946). Upon his initiative, the Yerevan Electron-Cyclic Accelerator. Alikhanyan was a laureate of the State Prizes of the USSR for 1941 and 1958, the Lenin Prize (1970), and two Red Banner Orders.
ANDRANIK OZANYAN AND KARABAGH: On November 15, 1918 Andranik moved out from Goris with his detachment and defeating the resistance of the armed forces of the Tatars, on November 17 arrived at a place called Tasverst (about 10-15 km from Shushi). Here two officers of the British Army handed over Andranik the wire of General Thomson, the commander of the English occupant authority in Baku. In the wire Thomson suggested stopping the military actions until the resolution of the Karabagh problem at the Peace Conference in Paris. Subsequently, the same message was sent to him in a letter. Andranik returned to Goris. Later he did not ever respond to the appeals and requests of the people from Karabagh to go there and with joint efforts liberate the region from the Turkish yoke.
ARZUMANYAN YERVAND HOVANNES (1909 ) - Born in 1909 in Tahavard village
of Martuni region (Nagorno Karabagh). Graduated from Moscow Academy of Agriculture
after Timiryazev. In 1938 he defended his Ph.D. Later, in 1953 he received
the degree of a doctor. From 1940 Arzumanyan was the director of Moscow Scientific
Research Institute of Cattle Breeding. Participated in the Great Patriotic
War. From 1952 he worked in the Academy after Timiryazev. Arzumanyan is the
author of over 350 scientific works. He received the title of the Honored
Doctor of Gelle University in Hungary, as well as the title of the Honorable
Member of the Association of the Zoo-Technical Institute of Poland. Awarded
with 7 orders (Red Banner, Great Patriotic War of the 1st degree, Red Star,
etc) and 16 medals.
ARZUMANYAN SERGEI ARKADI (1921 - 1970) Born in 1921 in Nerkin Aznek village of Askeran region, Nagorno Karabagh. A Major General. Participated in the Great Patriotic War in the North-West front, fought at the battles for Vitebsk, the defense of Velikie Luki town, Vilish. Served in the Soviet Army till 1949. Arzumanyan was appointed as the minister of the interior of the Armenian SSR.
ATABEKYAN LEVON NIKOLAY (1875-1918) A physician, poet,
member of the Armenian National Council in Baku, a public figure of a Karabagh
descent. During the armed conflicts in Baku in March, 1918 L. Atabekyan propagated
reconciliation and stopping of the bloody conflict in the streets of the town
together his companions Denejkin and Aghayev. Atabekyan and his companions
were killed during that mission.
ATAYAN RAFAEL ARSHAK (1907 ) - A poet, writer, member of the Writers' Union of the USSR. Born in 1907 in New Jugha (Iran). In 1927 graduated from Yerevan State University. During 1925-1928 Atayan worked in "Soviet Armenia" newspaper, and from 1948 till 1957 he taught at Yerevan Pedagogical Institute of the Russian and Foreign Languages.
ÀSHOT GRASHI (ÀSHOT BAGHDASAR GRIGORYAN) (1910-1983) - A poet, translator, member of the Writers' Union of the USSR, a critic of literature. Born in 1910 in Mets Tahlar village of Martuni region. In 1933 graduated from the Department of Historiography of Yerevan State University. During 1933-1946 Grashi worked in Lenin Library and newspaper "Communist" in Baku. In 1946 Grashi moved to Yerevan. He was awarded with the Red Banner and Distinction Orders.